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Energy Conservation on IR

  • Introduction

    • Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi had stated on December 25, 2014 that:

      “Railways, perhaps along with post offices, are the only two institutions in India with a deep network which if tapped judiciously can create substantial improvements in the hinterland. Railways were always considered only as a mode of transport in our country, we want to see Railways as the backbone of India's economic development.”

      Indian Railways (IR) is a great national asset. A single transport network connects far flung areas of the country. It is one of the largest transportation and logistics network of the world which runs 19,000 trains, passenger and freight put together. It runs 12,000 trains to carry over 23 million passengers per day connecting about 8,500 stations spread across the sub-continent. It is equivalent to moving the entire population of Australia. It runs more than 7,000 freight trains per day carrying about 3 million tonnes of freight every day. Its network of 65,000 route kilometers is more than one and half times the circumference of the earth. It has joined the select club of countries ferrying more than a ‘Billion tonne’ of freight, with other countries as China, Russia and United States with originating freight loading of 1008.09 million tonnes in 2012-13. During 2014-15, Indian Railways is expected to carry more than 1.1 billion tonnes freight.

  • Background

    • Globally, the transport sector consumed 27.6% of global energy use, where liquid fuels are the dominant source. Transportation alone accounts for more than 50 percent of worlds consumption of liquid fuels, and this share is likely to grow to over 60% by 2035. Within the transport sector energy consumption and therefore CO2 emissions are dominated by road, followed by aviation and shipping. 2.2% of this energy is consumed by rail sector, which means that 0.6% of the world’s energy is consumed by railways. This energy usage is categorized for traction power (used to power trains) and for non-traction (used mainly in buildings). Further, Railways are considered as safe, energy efficient & low carbon mode of transport & has a pivotal role not just in the economic progress of any country but is being increasingly viewed as the key player in switching over to a low carbon and sustainable society by attracting passengers from other modes of transport, optimise electrification, incorporating technological innovations & building up capacity and resources.


      The amount of passenger-km transported by rail in the world grew by 130% since 1975. India is the major contributor in this area. The demand for energy in railways is increasing to meet the requirement of the increasing rail traffic. So Implementation of energy efficiency measures in rail transportation is an important agenda in various countries to achieve sustainable rail transportation with the increasing growth in rail traffic.

      Indian Railway (IR) has one of the world's largest rail networks comprising 115,000 km (71,000 mile) of track over a route of 65,436 km (40,660 mile) and 8,495 stations. In 2014-15, IR carried 8.397 billion passengers i.e. more than 23 million passengers a day besides 1050 million tons of freight. By 2015, electrification of tracks on Indian Railways has been extended up to 26,000 km which constitutes around 40% of the total Railway Network.

      As per “Indian Railways Vision Document 2020” IR has plans to achieve the cumulative target of 33,000 km electrification of its existing tracks. This indicates that energy consumption of IR is going to increase substantially in coming years.

      Currently, Indian Railways is putting efforts to implement energy efficiency measures in railways to reduce the reliance on the conventional sources of energy which are getting costlier with rapid growth in their demand while their sources are limited or getting exhausted and to reduce the GHG emissions. Even though rail is more energy efficient than most other transport modes, the enhancement of energy efficiency is an important issue for Indian Railways to reduce their contributions to climate change further as well as to save and enlarge competitive advantages.

  • Indian Railways perspective in energy sector

    • a

      IR accounts for close to 1.8 per cent of the country’s total electricity consumption (IR utilized more than 17.5 billion kilowatt-hour (kWhr) electricity in 2014-15). IR’s energy consumption has been increasing over the years. During the period 2009-14, while the electricity consumption for traction has increased by 20 % for non-traction it increased by 0.16% only. Indian Railways has developed a long-term Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program (EECP) (2010-2032). The Program aims at progressively introducing a number of energy efficient technologies and measures in the railway system. Indian Railways has been taking steps towards energy efficiency and has been reducing its specific electricity consumption by about 3.0 % on year to year basis, in both traction and non-traction areas. However, considering the energy efficiency opportunities available and the upcoming expansion there it is felt that there is immense scope to further improve upon this by adopting and use of innovative energy efficiency technologies, solutions and best international practices.

      Some of the steps earlier initiated by IR, keeping the long term perspective in mind for energy conservation are:

      • Going for three phase Energy Efficient technologies for Electric locomotives and Electrical Multiple units (EMUs)
      • Introduction of energy efficiency measure for non traction uses, like going for LED lights, use of star rated electrical equipment only etc.

      In Indian Railways the average growth in electricity consumption for traction application between years 2007-2008 to 2013-2014 was around 20 % and the rise in electricity cost over this period was 50%. In the same period the freight on electric increased by 41% and passenger traffic increase by 36%.


      It means that with only about 20% extra energy 41% freight growth has been achieved. This has happened due to induction of energy efficient locomotives on IR. This is due t0 improvement in SEC by 17.6% in the same period.

      Specific Energy Consumption for Electricity (in kWH/000 GTKMs) for Five Years from 2009-2010 to 2013-2014

      SN Year Specific Consumption Energy
      Passenger Reduction in % Goods Reduction in %
      1 2009-10 19.6 7.29
      2 2010-11 19.4 1.02 6.79 6.85
      3 2011-12 19.0 2.06 6.43 5.30
      4 2012-13 18.9 0.52 6.13 4.66
      5 2013-14 18.9 0 6.00 2.12
      Average imp/det. For five years. 3.57 17.6

  • Energy Scenario on IR

    • Energy Consumption Trends- Traction and Non-traction


      Traction Vs Non-traction Energy Share for 2020-2021


      Energy Consumption & Bill Paid


      Average Cost of Total Energy

  • Energy Management in the Indian Railways

    • The total Electric Energy bill for IR in the year 2020-21 was about 9,018 crores and the Diesel bill was about 10,182 crores. Indian railways had been working continuously to improve its energy uses by induction of latest energy efficient technologies. These efforts have been regularly recognized at the National level as many of its establishments have won prestigious National Energy Conservation Awards over the years. It had remained the largest winner of BEE awards year after year. In the last five years, it had bagged 78 No. of energy conservation awards. These measures like introduction of three phase Electric locomotive technology, use of power factor correction capacitors at Traction Sub Station TSS, use of energy efficient LED lighting, high efficiency pumps, 3 star and above rating equipment and various other energy efficiency measures have resulted in substantial savings in energy bill of IR. Initiatives for improving the energy utilization on IR:

      i. Energy Audits

      World over it has been recognized that continuously auditing of various energy consumption centers in the light of latest technological solutions available for energy saving brings out the potential areas of energy saving. Regular energy audits at consumption points in Production Units (PUs) and Workshops were conducted for energy efficiency improvement. This included activities like identification of significant energy saving opportunities, one day training programs, identification of potential technology suppliers who can offer energy saving technologies to the units etc.

      ii) Adoption of LED lighting

      With recent advancement in LED lighting technology, which has substantially brought down the prices of LED lights to a level where LED lights have become cost-effective as compared to all other means of lighting, with pay back periods of about 2-3 years and with 5 years warranty, there by reduced maintenance costs, it has been decided by Railways to use only Led lighting in future, in all new establishments and for replacement of old lights in railway offices, stations, street lights etc. A policy directive to this effect was issued by the Ministry on 17th April 2015. Railways probably is the first organization to issue policy directive to use only LED lighting for all its future establishments and replacements of existing light fitting with 100% LED lights on all its existing establishment including Railway stations, Service buildings and Residential Quarters.

      iii) Energy Management System

      In order to achieve sustained efforts on Energy Efficiency and Fuel Conservation on Indian Railways, railways units are taking up steps towards implementation of ISO: 50001 (Energy Management system).

      The ISO 50001 is the International Standard for Energy Management System providing a robust framework for optimizing energy efficiency in public and private sector organizations. Certification to this standard demonstrates an organization’s commitment to continual improvement in energy management, allowing them to lead by example within their respective industries and ensures that related legislative and regulatory requirements are met. The key benefits of certification include:

      • Reduced operating cost - Significant financial savings can be achieved through increased energy conservation
      • Improved energy efficiency- ISO 50001 is the most robust energy management system, enabling to make continual improvements to become as efficient as possible.
      • Reduced carbon footprint - It reduces the carbon footprints and people will respond positively to the organization.
      • Legal compliance - Makes understand how statutory and regulatory requirements impact the organization and stay on the right side of the law.
      • Proven business credentials - Independent verification against recognized standards enhances the brand value of the organization.

  • Major Policy Guideline/Circulars/Manuals on

    • Energy Efficiency:

      IR has been actively taking Policy initiatives by issuing of various Guidelines/ Circulars on General Power Supply Systems like use of LED lights, Star rated equipments etc. Listed below are some of the major Policy Guideline/ Circulars and manual issued for Energy Conservation and energy management in Indian Railways in the recent past:

      • Use of energy efficient LED lights in place of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) and incandescent lamps (GLS).
      • Directions to carry out energy audit.
      • Development and issue of Energy Audit Manual and Standard Template for Contract Procedure for Energy Audits Services for Indian Railways Installations by RDSO.
      • Emphasis on use of 5 Star rated electrical equipment.
      • Directions to Railways for obtaining ‘Star Rating’ of its offices/buildings.

      In 2019, IR has signed MOU with the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) under its Power Sector Reforms (PSR) Programme in the field of Energy planning for Indian Railways, Promoting energy sustainability and deployment of Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure. Under this programme, recently, an e-Booklet on ‘Indian Railways on the fast track to achieve Net Zero Carbon emissions by 2030’, was released by Member (Operations & Business Development) and Mr. Gavin MaGillivray, Minister Counceller Development and Head, FCDO.


      In addition, MOUs between Railway Energy Management Company Limited and Energy Efficiency Services Limited for implementation of Energy Conservation projects over Railways and between Ministry of Railways and Bureau of Energy Efficiency have also been signed.

      Railways These MoUs, aims to provide a frame work for promoting future solutions and facilitate bring a change in its energy mix. This is also needed looking at the requirement of the present time which wants close co-ordination between stakeholders, working together and understanding each other to make faster deliveries to people. These MoUs will pave for efficient and reliable utilization of resources in the power sector for making it possible for the Railway to take benefits of various developments taking place in the power sector as a whole.

      An MoU was also signed between MNRE and Ministry of Railways. Railways are one of the biggest consumers of power in the country and would like to become leader in the renewable sector and master the technologies leading to efficiency utilization of energy.

      These three (3) MoUs with FCDO, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) will take care of complete power sphere from Railways perspective covering generation of power to demand side and make it possible for Government of India to show case how learning from each other can take you ahead in exploiting world class technologies and provide cheaper services to the people at large. These MoUs will also provide Railways the technical expertise, and open training facilities available in the power sector, to Railways.

  • Journey of Energy Conservation on IR:

    • IR had been very conscious about saving energy as energy saved is energy generated. It started energy conservation journey much earlier and at every stage took the benefit of best available technology, be it replacement of T-8 FTL by energy efficient T-5 and CFL fittings, provision of LED lights, energy efficient ceiling fans, occupancy sensors, use of star rated equipments etc. These efforts had earlier resulted into a saving of 1.03% of electricity for non traction application during 2011-12 despite about 5% increase in connected load.

      The National Energy Conservation awards won by Zonal Railways in the past are as under:-

      SN Year Railway/Year Hospital/Year Building/Year Rly. station Rly.PU Rly. workshops Institution Genl. Open category Total/Year
      1 2012 to 2015 17 15 13 14 - 12 01 02 74
      2 2016 04 05 04 08 - 03 02 01 27
      3 2017 - - 04 - - 03 - - 07
      4 2018 - 03 - 10 - - 04 - 17
      5 2019 04 - 04 - 03 - 02 - 13
      6 2020 04 - 04 - 03 - 03 - 14

      Some of the major measures implemented/ being implemented on the non-traction side for energy conservation are listed below::

      • Replacement of tube lights with LED tube lights.
      • Use of energy efficient water coolers.
      • Replacement of 90 W ceiling fans with 60 W ceiling fans.
      • Pump automation with GSM based techniques.
      • Use of energy efficient pumps.
      • Micro-controller based Automatic Platform Lighting Management System with segregation of 70% / 30% circuits.
      • Use of 3 stars and above labeled electrical products and equipment.
      • Solar based LED lighting system for level crossing gates.
      • Use of solar water heater in place of electric geyser.
      • Occupancy sensors in offices.

  • 100% LED over IR

    • Railway has completely switched over to 100% LED at all its installations including Railway installations including Railway Stations, Service buildings and Residential Quarters..

  • Green Buildings

    • IRICEN New Administrative Green Building.


      Indian Railway Institute of Civil Engineering (IRICEN) is a Premier Cetralised Training Institute caters to training needs of Indian railway officers, Railways related PSUs (DFCCIL, IRCON, RIETS, KRCL, NTPC etc) and overseas Railway organization. It is a four story building equipped with well-lit ergonomic air-conditioned class rooms with modern teaching aids, a full- fledged computer center, well equipped Lab, Library and Model room. It has capacity to train upto 200 persons at a time. The IRICEN shifted to new complex in Nov 2013. Hon’ble President of India awarded Green Building award to IRICEN on 14.02.2013 at New Delhi .


      1. Energy Saving Features:

      Total Energy saved 46% (which is rare for such types of buildings) by:

      • Building design with Day light features including additional opening in the middle to improve availability of natural light in the building.
      • Energy Efficient LED lighting fixtures with Occupancy Sensors.
      • Efficient VRV AC Units with COP up to 4.85.
      • Provision of renewable energy using 40 KVA Solar Photo voltaic cells.
      • Insulation on south & west sidewalls with double wall of fly ash bricks with 25mm insulation filler in cavity.
      • Double glazed high performance glass windows on south, west & east.

      Salient features

      • Year of commencement: 2009-10
      • Year of completion: January 2012
      • Cost : Rs.18.00 Cr (Approx)
      • Type of structure : R.C.C. Framed
      • No of floors : G+4
      • Each floor area : 881 Sqm
      • Total Plinth Area : 4405.90 Sqm

      Key objectives as a Green Building

      • Reduce energy consumption
      • Reduce water consumption and efficient water management
      • Efficient use of resources during construction
      • Reduce construction waste
      • Reduce destruction in ecology

      Environmentally sound technologies

      • Building is designed with 40% glazing area and with 2 cut outs to give more lighting thus reducing the conventional energy demand. Lighting is designed optimally. Energy consumption index and thermal comfort are fully met. With the above measures the power saving is to an extent of 20% is achieved compared to similar buildings.
      • The daily water consumption by the building has been reduced by 50% using low flow Sensor based Urinals, taps and dual flushing tanks.
      • The waste water is treated to tertiary standards in the Sewage Treatment Plant which works on FAB technology. The treated waste water is used for lawn and plant watering.
      • The building is first Green building on Indian railways and is conferred with “THREE STAR RATING” by GRIHA for its meticulous planning and execution with all Green concepts.
      • Rain water harvesting is provided for the full quantity of rain water coming from the roof top and circulation areas which is about 48 lakh litres per year against consumption of about 25 lakh litres per year.
      • Stand alone solar street lighting system with programmable day light sensing controller for outdoor lighting have been used.

  • Star Rating of Railway Administrative Buildings

    • Buildings in India have energy efficiency potential of 20-30% in terms of energy consumption. Under the Bureau of Energy Efficiency’s (BEE) scheme for star rating of office buildings based on specific energy usages, under this office buildings earn 1-5 star scale with 5 star label buildings being most efficient. Five categories of building – office buildings, hotels, hospitals, malls and IT parks in five climate zones in the country have been identified for this programme.

      Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) endorses all major office buildings which have connected load of 500 KW or more on Energy Performance Index. With the adoption of energy efficiency measures in a systematic manner, Rail Bhawan has been certified by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) as the 3 Star rated building for energy efficiency. Among the prominent landmark Government buildings alongside Raj Path viz. Udyog Bhawan, Vayu Sena Bhawan, Krishi Bhawan etc, Rail Bhawan is among the first such Ministerial office building to have been recognized in Central Secretariat area.

  • ‘5 Star’ rating for ICF, Chennai Administrative Building.

    • Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Chennai Administrative Building has been awarded ‘5 Star’ rating by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power, Government of India, on 13th July 2015. The ‘5 star’ rating of this building is the highest rating in the category of ‘Office Building’ instituted by BEE.

      ICF Administrative building comes under the category of ‘air-conditioned building in warm and humid climatic zone’ and this building has achieved energy performance index of 93.85 kWh/sqm/annum, against BEE’s norms of 100 kWh/sqm/annum. ICF has achieved this performance index by adopting effective energy conservation measures and installation of energy efficient equipments in the building. Few of the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) adopted are installation of 3 Star and above rating air-conditioners, VRF controlled air-conditioning system, replacement of conventional controls in lifts with VVF controls, provision of occupancy sensors in the chambers and wash rooms, LED lighting, LED facade lighting in place of flood light system.


      List of Railway Buildings awarded with BEE Star Labels under Office Building Category

      S. No. Name of the Building City Climatic Zone: Star Label Awarded
      1 Divisional Office Tiruchchirappalli Warm & Humid 5 Star
      2 DRM Office, Southern Railway, Trivandrum Thiruvanathapuram Warm & Humid 3 Star
      3 Railway Divisional Office, Rangiya Division Rangiya, Assam Warm & Humid 4 Star
      4 DRM Office, Northeast Frontier Railways Tinsukia, Assam Warm & Humid 4 Star
      5 Head Quarter Building, N F Railway Maligaon, Guwahati, Assam Warm & Humid 5 Star
      6 DRM Building, Katihar Katihar, Bihar Warm & Humid 5 Star
      7 Divisional Railway Manager Office Lumding Warm & Humid 5 Star
      8 Railway Divisional Office Alipurduar, West Bengal Warm & Humid 5 Star
      9 Divisional Railway Manager Office Ahmedabad Gujarat Hot & Dry 5 Star
      10 Divisional Office Madurai Tamil Nadu Warm & Humid 4 Star
      11 Administrative Offices of Construction Organizations, Southern Railway, EGMORE, Chennai Chennai, TN Warm & Humid 5 Star
      12 DRM Office Bhavnagar, Gujarat Hot & Dry 2 Star
      13 DRM Office Vijayavada Composite 3 Star
      14 Rail Nilayam South Central Railway Secunderabad Composite 2 Star
      15 DRM Office, Ambala Cantt Punjab Composite 5 Star
      16 Northern Railways Headquater,Baroda House New delhi Composite 5 Star
      17 DRM Office, Moradabad Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh Composite 5 Star
      18 DRM Office, Vadodara Gujrat Hot & Dry 5 Star
      19 DRM Office, Ferozepur Cantt Ferozepur Cantt, Punjab Composite 5 Star
      20 DRM Office, Rajkot Rajkot, Gujarat Hot & Dry 5 Star
      21 DRM Office, Mumbai Central Mumbai, Maharashtra Warm & Humid 5 Star
      22 DRM office, Jabalpur Jabalpur, MP Composite 5 Star
      23 DRM Office, Ratlam Ratlam, MP Composite 5 Star

      ISO 50001:2011 certification to ICF


      Recently ICF has been awarded ISO 50001:2011 certification, copy of the certificate as above.

  • Major measures implemented/ being implemented on the Electric traction side are:

    • Electrical Multiple Units (EMU) -.


      1. 116 energy efficient AC/DC rakes with 3 Phase IGBT type propulsion system have been introduced in Mumbai Suburban area with regenerative braking feature since 2007. In Western Railways the total energy generation of 64 EMU rakes with regenerative braking is 82.6 million KWh per annum and total saving is approx. Rs. 65.39 Crs. per annum. In Central Railway the total energy regeneration of 52 EMU rakes with regenerative braking is 66.7 million KWh per Annum and total saving is Rs. 53.53 Crs. per Annum.


      Energy cost saving due to 1500 V DC to 25 KV AC conversion of electric traction system in Mumbai suburban section of Western Railway.

      1.0 Commissioning status of DC-AC conversion project :

      • Up through and Dn. through new line Borivali – Virar --16.7.2007
      • Up local & Dn. Local lines Borivali – Virar section ---28.2.2010
      • Vile Parle to Borivali all lines --- 13.11.2011
      • Vile Parle to Churchgate section --- 05.02.2012


      • EMU rakes with regenerative braking 74 rakes.
      • WAP5 locos with regenerative braking based at BRC shed 38 locos.

      2.0 Electricity consumption (in MU )and traffic hauled (in Million GTKM) in Mumbai suburban area from year 2007-08 onwards

      Year Energy consumption in MU Total traffic hauled in Million GTKM
      2007-08 318 7318.32
      2008-09 327 7817.26
      2009-10 319 8334.33
      2010-11 307 8508.38
      2011-12 300 8892.4
      2012-13 315 9285.94
      2013-14 341 10043.39
      % increase in 2013-14 w.r.t.2007-08 7.23% 37.23%

      • Increase in traffic in GTKM ------- 37.23%

      • Whereas increase in energy consumption ------- 7.23%

      3.0 It may be noted from the table that 10043.39 million GTKM were hauled by consuming 341 MU in the year 2013-14 whereas 7318.32 Million GTKM of traffic was hauled by consuming 318 MU in the year 2007-08. As per the energy efficiency with the traction system prevailing in the year 2007-2008, 10043.39 Million GTKM would have been hauled by consuming 436 MU. This figure has been achieved by projecting energy consumption of 2007-08 on pro-rata basis to year 2013-14. Actual consumption in the year 2013-14 is 341 MU, thus there is saving of (436 MU - 341 MU) = 95 MU. This implies that there is net saving of 21.71% of energy in the year 2013-14 due to conversion and regenerative braking system of EMU & locos.

      4.0 As per prevailing tariff in Mumbai suburban area, cost of energy is Rs. 6.86 per unit in 2013-14 . The annual saving of 95 MU has accrued energy cost saving of Rs. 65.2 Crores (Rs 6.86 x 95 MU) which is 27.8% of energy bill paid of Rs. 233.92 Crores in the 2013-14 in Mumbai suburban area.

      • 70 numbers of energy efficient rakes are under manufacturing at ICF with 3 phase IGBT based propulsion system and regenerative braking system to replace DC EMU rakes.
      • Capacitor banks have been provided for improvement of power factor and to reduce feeder current in LHB EOG AC coaches and Power.
      • Power Factor Correction ensures that PF is maintained over 0.95 in traction sub-stations.
      • Switching off of standby transformer in traction sub-stations saves about 0.3-0.5 % of the total annual traction energy consumption.
      • Provision of coasting boards and power boards in the route for trains to regulate power on falling and raising gradients.
      • OHE voltage at 27.5 kV maintained by suitable operation of tap position during day & night.
      • Switching off yard lights to required minimum at traction sub-stations.
      • Calibration of Trivector meter is conducted yearly to maintain the accuracy of meters 0.5 class:
      • To ensure sparkles current collection, OLIVER'G' is regularly used for attending spark location and maintaining spark free current collection.
      • Regular energy audit of traction sub-station and its implementation.
      • Electric loco idling in sheds and yards are kept shunt down
      • Regular counselling of Loco Pilots for switching 'OFF' blower in case yard detention is more than 15 minute.
      • Regular counselling of Loco Pilots for resorting to maximum coasting.
      • Switching of trailing loco in case of multi units (MU).
      • Microprocessor based Energy Meters have been provided in the all-Electric Locomotives of ELS/BIA to monitor the energy consumption. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of the locomotive can be calculated & compared with the benchmark values to take corrective measures.
      • Benchmarking of energy consumption.

  • Analysis of Power consumption Data on IR :

    • Indian Railways has taken up analysis of its Traction and non traction power consumption data through logging all data on Vidyut Energy a Railsaver Website which was launched on 15th April 2014.


      Key Features of the system:

      • Energy Consumption Trend Monitoring
      • Dashboard Monitoring
      • Customized Reporting
      • Online Easy to use portal
      • Decision Support System
      • SMS Notification

      Major Modules

      • Energy Consumption Modules
      • Energy Conservation Modules
      • Renewable Energy Modules
      • Dashboard Modules and Planning Modules
      • Annexure Reports Module
      • Customized Reports Modules
      • Organization Hierarchy, Message Centre, Image Galley etc.
  • Future Initiative to improve energy utilization in Electric Non - Traction:

    • In order to further improve upon energy efficiency IR has taken up some pilot projects for Energy efficiency improvement with an aim to multiply such successful projects in the coming days.

      1.Optimal light control system

      Optimal light controlling system is a comprehensive system which controls lighting load of all kinds. This is a fully programmable system by which reduction in energy consumption is achieved by reducing the applied voltage without proportionate reduction in the illumination level.

      2.Smart sense & smart Grid system

      The project aims to monitor the energy consumption and the energy generation from the diesel generators, total running hours, total black out hours, blackout frequency, etc. to provide the visualization and Energy Management services in building complex.

      3. Automation of pumping arrangement

      This scheme improves system efficiency/ performance, safety of equipment/ people, and reduction in downtime by way of timely maintenance attention.

      4. Automation of pumping arrangement

      The super efficient ceiling fan consumes about 35W for the same output to a conventional ceiling fan and saves more than 50% electrical energy comparison with conventional ceiling fan.

      5. Installation of VVVF, Variable voltage variable frequency drives for lifts

      The elevator comprise of a VVVF drive, functionally integrated with the elevator controller to control the driving motor. The VVVF based technology ensure the elevators movement with speed control. The VVVF drive also result in smooth acceleration/de-acceleration during the motor starting/stopping for reducing/limiting the starting current and the frictional wear and tear of the brake liner. VVVF drive have closed loop system with all type of safety, floor leveling control with LED scrolling display system, car operating panel with call buttons, hall buttons, up/ down indictors, ARD complete with shaft wiring and all other associated accessories/ equipments required for replacement of existing controller with VVVF drive in the existing 8 passengers, 8 stops and 8 opening lift (max.) as per ISS and IE rules and RDSO spec. No. RDSO/2013/EM/SPEC/0016 (Rev ‘O‘).

  • Future Initiative to improve energy utilization in Electric Traction:

    • (i) Setting up of Electric Locomotive Factory at Madhepura, Bihar through JV for manufacture of 12000 HP Electric Locomotives:

      • 87% energy efficiency.
      • These locos will also reduce CO2 emission of 350-500 tonne per loco per annum due to regeneration as a result of IGBT technology.

      (ii) Procurement of 9000 HP Electric Locomotives

      These locomotives are to be energy efficient with regenerative braking features and equipped with IGBT Propulsion technology for use on Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC).


      (iii) Procurement of Train sets (15 Sets - 315 Cars; out of 315 Cars 40 could be imported and 275 to be Made in India) :

      • 20-30% energy efficient over loco hauled trains (improved regenerative braking and Head On Generation (HOG) scheme of train power supply, lighter weight )


      (iv) Setting up of Rail Coach Factory at Kanchrapara, West Bengal through JV for manufacture of EMU/MEMU coaches:

      • These EMUs Help in improving efficiency due to regeneration.

  • Actions being taken by various Railways towards Energy Conservation:

    • South Central Railway

      • Use of BEE 5-star rated split air-conditioners against over-aged window air-conditioners of service life more than 10 years.
      • Provision of solar hybrid air-conditioners in lieu of conventional only evaporative cycle air-conditioners. Railway has provided such air-conditioners of 6 Nos. at Electric Loco Shed, Kazipet.
      • Use of LED lighting/induction lighting in high mast tower light provided in circulating area and goods yard. 800 W metal halide fitting is replaced with 150 W induction lamps and 400 W metal halide is replaced with 80 W induction lamps.
      • Provision of 70% light control system at railway stations through wireless key tag control, in hand of Dy. SS on duty with 15 minutes off delay timer.
      • Operation of high mast light in station circulating area through 70% control lighting on platform with 30 minutes off delay timer. 16 High mast Lights are covered under this scheme. Rest are being covered.
      • Provision of 15 minutes off timer in rolling examination lights and provision of LED/induction lamps in rolling examination lights.
      • Replacement of T8/T12 with T5 FTL lightings in all offices, office buildings and also residential quarters on first occupancy.
      • Provision of clock timer control in all water coolers, in office premises and at railway stations.
      • Provision of single sort 30 minutes off delay timers in station lighting at passenger halt stations.
      • Provision of Current Transformer based one shot cut off control on electric geysers provided at running rooms and retiring rooms.
      • Provision of day light censor type control on street lighting in important colonies.
      • Provision of timer based street light controls in other colonies.
      • Provision of door operated limit switch control for air-conditioners provided in the hospital wards.

      i) Initiatives taken for energy audits and developing benchmarks for energy consumption points


      Energy audit is done at Krishna Canal Traction sub-station, report is awaiting.


      • Energy audit at 142 locations have been completed upto March, 2015. During 2015-16, 30 locations have been identified out of which energy audit at 9 locations have been completed, balance will be completed on or before the month of December, 2015.
      • Bench marking: The concept of light power density (LPD) in service building introduced. The divisions are advised to achieve LPD bench marking of 11.8 watts/sq.m.
      • The benchmarking of major consuming loads will be taken up accordingly.

      ii) Initiatives taken leading to savings in traction and non-traction energy


      • Energy conservation by switching off of standby transformers.
      • Shutting down off the locomotives in trip-sheds, fright sheds yards & enroute for more than 30 minutes.
      • Switching off blowers whenever the train is stopped for more than 5 minutes.
      • Extensive usage of regenerative braking for trains working with three phase locos.


      • Complete shutting down 5000 kVA power sub-station with 1750 kVA MD and feeding the load through ring main circuit by other 5000 kVA with 3800 kVA MD sub-station during weekends (Saturday and Sunday).
      • Shutting down of all standby transformers from primary side to eliminate ‘no load’ current.
      • Complete shutting down of transformers which are feeding only pumping stations in off pumping period.
      • Switching off of air-conditionining load feeder before and after office timing and also during lunch time.

      iii) Initiatives taken for improving the designs to improve energy utilization

      • Use of SPV hybrid air-conditioners over conventional evaporative type air-conditioners.
      • Provison of VVVF drives in traversers, EOT cranes and air handling units of centralised air-conditioning.
      • Provision of VVVF drive in dyno drive testing.
      • Provision of energy efficient battery charging plant for charging locomotive batteries.
      • Provision of expresser (loco compressor) of WDM2 locomotives with 40 HP slipring induction motor as distributed compressed air source, in lieu of centralized very high capacity of 160 LPM and above compressors in diesel loco shed, Guntakal. This scheme is also going to be implemented at C&W Depot for air testing.

      Central Railway

      Measures taken in Non-traction Energy Consumption.

      The following measures are being taken to reduce non-traction energy consumption.

      • Making user departments aware and accountable for use of electricity. Same is being reviewed during the Divisional meeting by DRMs.
      • Daily monitoring of HT consumption at major load centers & take measures to control excess in consumption.
      • Controlling the utilization of high mast lighting towers in good shed and other placed making accountable the user Department.
      • Segregation of AC loads from non AC loads and monitoring the AC loads.
      • Provision of T-5 fittings and CFLs and LED based lights.
      • Monitoring reduction of use of geysers in rest house, running room etc.
      • Planning to use instant type of geysers instead of storage type at Rest Houses etc.
      • Provision of Electric geysers with hybrid system using solar energy to save the electricity and water.
      • Providing occupancy censors in the chamber of officers which should control light and AC of the chamber.
      • Use of star rated AC units and energy savers in places of intensive utilization.
      • Control the utilization of pumps for supplying water to colonies/ Services Buildings etc.
      • Fixing of quota for consumption at major consumption centers and monitored on daily basis.
      • Removing of AC Units from non eligible locations, wherever appropriate.
      • Street light control can be made through automatic timer settings.
      • Use of energy efficient equipments to be planned, while planning the replacement of equipments.
      • Platform lighting of 30% and 70% to be critically observed at all platforms to reduce consumption.
      • Special attention to be given by workshop towards reduction in utilization of compressors plants, lighting, electric ovens, air circulators and machines etc.
      • Energy auditing to be done at high utilization area and recommendations implemented.
      • More proposals to be developed for non conventional energy sources like solar power/fittings/hybrid power with wind and solar etc. to save energy.

      North Central Railway

      Following measures/ steps have been taken by NCR to reduce non traction energy consumption:

      • Smart sense GPS based energy monitoring system.
      • Use of LED fittings at corridors, staircase, toilets, bathrooms,
      • Street lights, circulating area in place of CFL/T-5/MH/HPSV Fittings.
      • Use of Automatic Power factor correction panels in HT/LT substations.
      • Replacement of old 90 watt ceiling fans by 60 watt ceiling fans.
      • Use of electronic fan regulator in place of conventional fan regulator.
      • 6Prov. Of LED based station name board in place of neon sign board.
      • Timer switches on high mast towers-yard lighting/street lighting.
      • Use of electronic ballast in place of conventional ballast in FTL circuits and Metal Halide circuits.
      • Automation of pumps.
      • Use of energy efficient pumps in place of old inefficient pumps.
      • Use of copper wiring for quarters.
      • Promote DELP Scheme.
      • Use of 3 stars and above labeled electrical products and equipments.
      • Energy Audit of major load centers

      Western Railway

      i) Energy efficiency /conservation measures

      • In TRD for Energy Conservation purpose high pf of 0.98 lagging & above is maintained to avoid transmission and Distribution losses. For maintaining high PF, W. Rly is getting incentive/rebates about Rs. 2.32 cr /month in energy bills.
      • At traction sub-station, standby transformer is kept switched off to avoid no load losses.
      • OHE voltage is maintained within limits and low catenary voltage is avoided. Thus losses on account of high current due to low voltage are avoided.

      Year wise consumption and SEC (non traction) of Western Railway is as under:

      Year Non Traction Purposes SEC (KWH/KW)
      2010-11 1220.02 70.45
      2011-12 1157.34 70.08
      2012-13 1112.98 65.50
      2013-14 1111.81 63.32
      2014-15 1101.10 61.56

      This has been achieved through number of green energy initiatives like provision of Solar power systems on stations, LC gates, provision of Solar street lights in colonies, stations, apart from conventional energy conservation measures like provision of LED fittings on stations, provision of Energy Efficient Light fittings, automation of pumps, provision of star rated equipments, automation of 70% lighting circuits on platforms through signaling system etc. on Western Railways.

      Traction energy is consumed for hauling trains. Energy conservation measures for electric locomotive have been identified & action plan prepared. Highlights of action plan are as follows:

      Running staff

      • Correct accountal of GTKM by division taking FOIS load including CC+8+2 loading.
      • Identification of location of coasting boards and provision of coasting boards.
      • Fixing of trip ration load wise & section wise load. Monitoring & counseling of weak drivers.
      • Switching OFF trailing locos in MU & Tripler while working single loco load/LE.
      • Switching OFF aux. machines at stabling yards, trip shed, loco shed for detention more than 15”.
      • Switching OFF locos while (Single, MU, Tripler) in any yards, loops trip sheds loco sheds if detentions more than 45”.
      • 100% Use of DBR & Regenerative braking by loco pilot.

      Operating staff

      • Ensure timely taking ‘OFF’ of signals.
      • Don’t regulate High speed freight train such as CONRAJ for giving preference to slow moving Mail/Express and Passenger trains.
      • Inform crew about train regulation / detention in Yards / station so that crew can ‘SWITCH OFF’ blowers /locomotive as the case may be.
      • Avoid ‘LIGHT’ running of locomotives
      • Energy conservation by maximum possible coasting and efficient use of regenerative breaking for optimization of regeneration in 3-phase locos.

      iii) Initiative taken for Energy audit

      Guidelines issued vide BEE’s Regulation of 2010 for conducting energy audits are followed on Western Railway.

      Energy Audits have already been already carried at following locations on Western Railway and the recommendations of the same are already implemented.

      S. No. Details of work centers Work centers identified Year Audit conducted Audit conducted by
      1 Churchgate railway station & JRH 2 nos. 2009-10 M/s Encon Energy Management Services, Aurangabad
      2 Vadodara Station and NAIR complex 2 nos. 2009-10 M/s Encon Energy Management Services, Aurangabad
      3 Pumping installations of RTM division 9 nos. 2009-10 Departmentally by Shri Vivek Dixit (Energy Auditor) as Sr.DEE(P)RTM
      4 LCW Workshop DHD 1 nos. 2008-09 M/s. Tuvsud South Asia, New Delhi
      5 Railway Colony, DHD 1 nos. 2009-10 M/s. ERDA
      6 Carriage Workshop, PL 1 nos. 2012-13 M/s. Saurabh Engg.
      7 Makarpura TSS 1 nos. 2007-08 M/s. ERDA
      8 Bhestan TSS 1 nos. 2007-08 Departmentally by Shri Sanjay Sagar, Energy Auditor as Dy.CEE/TrD/HQ
      9 Mahalaxmi Workshop 1 no. 2007-08 M/s. Saket Projects, Ahmedabad
      10 Vatva Diesel shed 1 no. 2015-16 Departmentally by Shri Lalit Tomar as DEE/Chg/ADI
      11 DRM office, Divisional Hospital, Pumping installation, BVP 3 nos. 2015-16 M/s. Darshan Instt of Engg and Technology, Rajkot

      Following 25 locations have been identified for Energy Audit on Western Railway.

      S. No. Location Remarks
      1 General Manager's Office (Old Bldg) Proposals under process. TDC 31.12.2015
      2 DRM office, Mumbai Central
      3 Mumbai Central Station
      4 Bandra Terminus Station
      5 Jagjivan Ram Hospital
      6 Lower Parel Workshop
      7 MEMU shed Vadodara
      8 Pratapnagar Workshop
      9 DRM Office, Ratlam
      10 Divisional Hospital, Ratlam
      11 Indore Station
      12 Diesel Shed, Ratlam
      13 DRM Office, Ahmedabad
      14 Divisional Hospital, Sabarmati
      15 Ahmedabad Station
      16 Mehsana Station
      17 Diesel Shed, Vatva Energy Audit completed in May 2015. Recommendations being implemented
      18 DRM Office, Rajkot Proposals under process. TDC 31.12.2015
      19 Divisional Hospital, Rajkot
      20 Rajkot Station
      21 Hapa Yard
      22 DRM Office, Divisional Hospital Bhavnagar Energy Audit completed in Aug 2015. Recommendations being studied.
      23 Mahalakshmi Workshop Proposals under process. TDC 31.12.2015
      24 Lady Jackson Hospital Dahod
      25 EMU carsheds, Mumbai Central, Kandivali, Virar
      SHED/Workshop BRC BL DHD
      Energy Audit Nov-2012 July-2013 June – 2008
      ISO 50001 Being done by Sr.DEE/P Tender due on 06.10.15 Obtained Detailed Estimate vetted. Tender in process

      Energy Audit of Traction Substations:

      The energy audit of MPR TSS was done through M/S ERDA in year 2007. As per recommendation of M/S ERDA, additional capacitor bank was provided to improve pf up to 0.98 and above. This resulted in P.F. incentive to Railway of Rs. 58.71 lakh per annum.

      Similarly energy audit of Bhestan TSS was also done in year 2007 by Dy.CEE/TRD/CCG( Energy Auditor) and recommendations were implemented and saving of Rs. 40 lakh per annum as pf incentive is being received by Rly.

      Railway is taking all steps to ensure energy conservation at all of it’s TSS. However as per summary of key requirements of Bureau of Energy Efficiency – Manner and intervals of Time for Conduct of Energy Audit Regulations,2010, in course discussion, ED(EM), RDSO has explained to DG,BEE that audit of traction substation is not necessary.

      In view of this now no audit of any TSS is being done thereafter.

      ISO 50001 of buildings and installations:

      ISO 50001 for Energy Management system has been obtained for DRM offices of RJT, BCT, BVP, ADI, ELS - Valsad & for ST station for the first time on Indian Railways. Proposals for obtaining ISO 50001 for 20 other locations are in pipeline.

      iv) Initiative taken leading saving in traction & non traction energy Monitoring of energy regeneration on three phase Electric locomotives through CMS.

      With technology advancement and availability of efficient switching devices, regenerative breaking has come into design with 3 phase GTO locos. A week long drive was launched during Aug-15 to counsel all Loco pilots/Asstt. Loco Pilots for ensuring entry of Energy and train load readings at the time of ' signing Off ' through CMS. These data are being analysed to decide the benchmark in particular section & load wise. During the drive special emphasis has been given to encourage & motivate Loco Pilots for Energy conservation while coasting and efficient use of regenerative breaking for optimization of regeneration in 3-phase locos.

      Saving in Non traction was achieved through number of green energy initiatives like provision Solar power systems on stations, LC gates, provision of Solar street lights in colonies, stations, apart from conventional energy conservation measures like provision of LED fittings on stations, provision of Energy Efficient Light fittings, automation of pumps, provision of star rated equipments, automation of 70% lighting circuits on platforms through signaling system etc. on Western Railways.

      v) Initiatives taken for improving the designs to improve energy utilization.

      1. In Mumbai sub-urban section 1500 V D.C. traction system has been converted to 25 KV AC traction system in various phases which was very tough task looking to the sub-urban traffic and OHE clearances below existing old bridges. Conversion from 1500 V D.C. to 25 KV A.C. system completed on 05.02.2012.

      With 25 KV AC, energy losses in system have been reduced considerably and regeneration with 3 phase technology in EMUs and locos has become possible. About 30 % of energy consumed by EMU is fed back in the system by regeneration since 2012-13. This has resulted in 82.56 MU of energy saving costing Rs. 65.39 in 2014-15.

      2. Other initiatives to reduce losses in system are as under:

      • Periodical current collection tests are being done by OLIVER-G equipment and hard sports are being attended promptly so that no sparking between OHE and panto pan takes place.
      • Checking of OHE by roof mounted thermal imaging camera to detect hot spots in OHE and timely attention so that not only possible breakdown are avoided but energy losses are also eliminated. Similar checking is being done in switching stations and traction substations to avoid overheating.
      • 105 sq mm jumpers are being replaced by 160 sq mm jumper at isolators in first sub sector from feeding end.
      • 1600 Amp capacity isolators are being provided in place of 1250 Amp capacity isolators.

      3. Automation of 70% lighting circuits on platforms through signaling system.

      vi) & xi) Improvement in SEC in Traction and non traction areas

      Improvement in Traction area

      SEC Target 2015-16 Achievement during the month (July) Cumulative during the year (April-July) % Improvement(Cumulative)
      2014-15 2015-16 2014-15 2015-16
      GOODS 6.21 6.79 7.86 6.33 7.50 - 18.48
      Passenger 19.70 19.67 19.73 19.65 19.70 - 0.25

      Improvement in Non Traction area

      Year wise consumption and SEC (non traction) of Western Railway is as under:

      Year Non Traction Purposes SEC (KWH/KW)
      2010-11 1220.02 70.45
      2011-12 1157.34 70.08
      2012-13 1112.98 65.50
      2013-14 1111.81 63.32
      2014-15 1101.10 61.56

      (vii) Demand Side Management/Building Management System

      (a) Contract demand of each traction sub-station is kept optimum as per load pattern so that no penal charges are paid to DISCOMs. For this, half yearly review of contract demand is done by Divisions and accordingly HQ approval is given.

      Following buildings on Western Railway have been star rated by BEE:

      • DRM office of Mumbai Central – 5 star rating
      • DRM office of Vadodara – 5 star rating
      • DRM office of Ratlam – 5 star rating
      • DRM office of Ahmedabad – 5 star rating
      • DRM office of Rajkot – 5 star rating
      • DRM office of Bhavnagar – 3 star rating

      (c) ISO 50001 for Energy Management system has been obtained for DRM office-RJT, DRM office-BCT, DRM office – BVP, DRM office – ADI, Electric Loco Shed- BL and for ST station for the first time on Indian Railways. Proposals for obtaining ISO 50001 for 20 other locations under process.

      viii) Energy efficiency in Electric Loco/Driving Technique

      Energy consumed & regeneration data are fed by LP in CMS. These data are being analysed to decide the Benchmark in particular section & load wise. The weak drivers having less regeneration & more energy consumption are being counseled for improvement.

      xi) Energy efficiency in General Power supply.

      As above

      x) Solar panels on Railway coaches.

      Solar panels have been provided on 2 coaches of Science Express.

      xii) Saving due to regenerative braking in 3 phase Locomotives:

      Improved Specific energy consumption has been achieved by adoption of 3 phase technology for electric locomotives which facilitates regeneration of 15 to 17% of energy consumed. At present on an average 42 nos. Of 3 phase loco/day i.e. 22% of total outage is available for train operation on Western Railway. The Loco pilots are being regularly counselled to improve driving technique utilizing simulator at ZETC/BRC approximately 6.71 million units were regenerated during April’15 to Juy’15 which has resulted in saving of around Rs.4.90Cr.

      xiii) Use of Star rated appliances.

      Star Rated Appliances like Energy Efficient submersible pumps, ceiling fans, air conditioners, refrigerators, etc. are being provided in Western Railway. Details of equipments procured over last 5 years on Western Railway are as follows:

      Year Star Rated equipment
      2010-11 564
      2011-12 733
      2012-13 742
      2013-14 896
      2014-15 733

      xiv) Usage of LEDs on Railway premises

      • LED lighting arrangement provided at entire BCT station by M/s SYSKA under CSR initiative for the first time on Indian Railways.
      • LED lighting provided at other 8 stations (Billimora, Kothaj, Od, Makarpura, Barnama, Barajathi, Sabarmati & Palanpur) on Western Railway.
      • 6538 nos. have been identified to be replaced on Western Railway. The following have so far been provided:
      • 820 nos. BCT division
      • 106 nos. BRC division
      • 37 nos. ADI division

      xv) Status of LED lamps purchased under DELP scheme.

      Ministry of Power is facilitating distribution of 7 Watt energy efficient LED bulbs for people under domestic efficient lighting programme through M/s. Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture company of PSUs of Ministry of Power. Under this scheme, LED bulbs are being procured in bulk by EESL and cost of the same for Indian Railway employees will be Rs. 100/- only (market price of the same being Rs. 250-300). EESL will be providing 10 LED bulbs to each valid identity holding employee for Rs. 100 each.

      The scheme was inaugurated on Western Railway on 11.09.2015 by General Manager, WR and will be completed by 31.10.2015 over Western Railway. So far 15251 LED lamps have been Distributed on Western Railway.

      Item no. xvi- DC/AC conversion.

      In Mumbai sub-urban section 1500 V D.C. has been converted to 25 KV AC system in various phases, which was almost impossible job looking into the sub-urban traffic and OHE clearances below existing old bridges. Conversion from 1500 V D.C. to 25 KV A.C. system completed on 05.02.2012.

      North Western Railway

      • Automation & Remote Control of Pumping Installations Through GSM/GPRS under UNDP project in Jaipur Division.
      • Use of 30W Ceiling Fan in place of 90/60W Ceiling Fan.
      • Use of LED light in place of T-5/T-8 FL tube.
      • Uses of energy efficient LED luminaire in coaches.
      • LED based tail lamp 5 W in place of 40W conventional type lamp.
      • LED based Night light cum berth Indication light of 1W I in place of 15W conventional type lamp.
      • Use of 11W CFL fittings in place 18W fluorescent tube light.
      • For fuel conservation in AC EOG Coaches the capacitor banks are being provided.
      • E- beam cables are being used in coach wiring.
      • Regenerative type battery chargers, Dyna drive machines, Alternator & RRU/ERRU testing benches has been installed in workshops & Coaching depots.
      • Testing gadget has been installed at JP, BKN & JU for testing of EOG Coaches without Power Car at sick line .

      High Mast Lighting Towers with LED Lights at Ajmer Railway Station (North Western Railway)

  • Optimization of Traction Power Procurement Cost

    • Indian Railways consumed about 16.11 billion units of electrical energy for its traction and non-traction applications in 2020-21. The total energy bill paid for consuming this energy was about Rs 10,652 Cr. which includes about Rs 9,018 Cr. for electric traction applications and more than Rs 1,634 Cr. for electric non-traction applications. Indian Railway has been granted Deemed Licensee status under third proviso to section 14 of the Electricity Act, 2003. From Nov’15 onwards, after which it has started to procure power under Open Access from Generating Companies (GENCOs) directly through tariff based bidding/bilateral arrangements; resulting in savings of approximately Rs. 21494 Cr. in BAU mode till Apr’2021.